Product Documents & Files

Typesort ascending Title Date
White Papers: What Time is it? It’s a Matter of Trust Those in the business of measuring time are familiar with the saying, “If you have one clock, you know what time it is. If you have two, well…”. Time synchronization is the ability for all clocks to have the same time. But what time is it? If your time synchronization deployment uses time from the internet, your organization may be at risk. Official time provided by a GPS-based network appliance is a time source that you can trust. pdf - 399 KB
Friday, September 5, 2014
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White Papers: A Holistic Approach to Trusted, Resilient PNT Positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) services are indispensable, and providing trusted, resilient PNT solutions requires us to look beyond individual systems and methodologies to focus upon the user. An architecture that can meet this demand must include multiple systems with diverse technologies so that any single threat or source of disruption can be mitigated. This document discusses how signaling technologies such as GNSS, eLoran and STL are the complementary components of this architecture. pdf - 583 KB
Wednesday, May 9, 2018
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White Papers: Leap Second Readiness Tips If you manage a time-sensitive network, you'll want to consider how a leap second event will effect your applications. We offer these tips to help you be prepared. pdf - 224 KB
Monday, December 31, 2018
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White Papers: What is a GPS Simulator? As GPS receivers are built into more mission-critical devices for difficult application environments, and designed with the emerging capabilities of a multitude of GNSS constellations and augmentation systems, developers and manufacturers need better ways to guarantee performance. That’s where a GPS simulator comes in. pdf - 99 KB
Monday, December 31, 2018
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White Papers: SmarTiming+ GPS/GNSS Discipining Technology Whitepaper Patented Smart SRO Rubidium SynClock+ with Industry'S First SmarTiming+ Technology Inside pdf - 857 KB
Friday, September 7, 2012
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White Papers: Tech Brief Resiliency in PNT: GPS/GNSS Jamming and Spoofing Reliance on GNSS is now commonplace. However, all GNSS systems share a common vulnerability: their signals are very weak. GNSS satellites operate from Mid-Earth Orbit (MEO), approximately 20,000-25,000 km above the earth, to provide the best coverage and geometry for triangulation. As such, the transmitted signal is extremely weak upon arrival at the surface of the earth – so weak that it is weaker than the surrounding radio noise. Special signal processing techniques recover the GNSS signal from the background noise, but the weak signal strength at the user’s receivers makes GNSS navigation very susceptible to interference. pdf - 641 KB
Tuesday, July 2, 2019
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White Papers: Resilient PNT: How to Detect, Protect and Prevent Disruption of GPS/GNSS/PNT Signals and Sources

For the last two decades, reliance upon GPS/GNSS for positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) by civilian applications has been an overwhelming success, providing increasingly accurate and reliable PNT information everywhere for free. However, in recent years, malicious threats have emerged that exposed the Achilles heel of GPS/GNSS: Its weak power and unencrypted signal format leave it vulnerable to jamming and spoofing. The loss of PNT information can result in rare but catastrophic events, crippling critical infrastructure that is necessary for our survival.

Fortunately, there are many alternative technologies available to augment GPS and provide accurate and reliable PNT information even under extremely adverse conditions. These include:

  • Low Earth Orbit (LEO) PNT satellite signals – operating close to the Earth, with signal strengths ~1000x stronger than GPS, to overcome jamming. And, encrypted to prevent spoofing.
  • Miniaturized, affordable atomic clocks to provide precise time internally – which is the foundation of every positioning system – without connection to, or reliance on, outside sources which could corrupt the precision.
  • Fiber optic network time distribution via secure, high accuracy protocols.

In this white paper, we will discuss these alternative technologies and offer recommendations for procedures and processes to manage and avoid the risks of cyberattacks, applying the best practices known today. We will focus on Resilient PNT and describe the strategies, technologies and procedures to avoid these cybersecurity risks and ensure the continuity of any critical operation.

pdf - 8 MB
Wednesday, September 2, 2020
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White Papers: The Advent of Tightly Synchronized Clocks in Distributed Systems The last decade has brought a paradigm shift in computing systems from single processor devices — whose performance plateaued — to distributed computing systems. In distributed systems, nodes execute concurrently with limited information about what the other nodes are executing at the moment. A key component of distributed coordination is the enforcement of consistent views at all nodes for the ordering of significant events. To this end, events are "timestamped" with logical counters or — increasingly lately — with tightly-synchronized physical time. White Paper
Friday, May 11, 2018
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White Papers: MiFID II Clock Sync Requirements Checklist

In January 2018, MiFID II RTS 25 compliance began, including five requirements for timing synchronization. Use this detailed checklist to make sure that you’re aware of the key considerations, your timing chain is ready and you're fully compliant.

MiFID II Checklist
Friday, January 19, 2018
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White Papers: Protecting the U.S. Military From GPS Jamming and Spoofing White Paper Military forces need GPS to provide critical, precise information, but GPS is vulnerable and can be exploited. This white paper from C4ISRNET discusses how preparation and countermeasures can assure forces maintain critical capabilities. Download white paper
Wednesday, April 15, 2020
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White Papers: Creating a GNSS Test Plan: A Start to Finish Guide

The low cost and high performance of GNSS receiver chipsets makes it easier than ever to include a GNSS receiver in products that never had them before. With the availability of multiple GNSS constellations that transmit signals on multiple frequencies, and various available technologies to improve the accuracy of GNSS, evaluating and selecting a receiver can be a significant undertaking.

How a GNSS receiver is integrated can have a major impact on product and system performance. To ensure success, a best practice is to perform testing using a GNSS simulator, which allows for repeatable testing of devices with GNSS receivers in simulated environments.

This white paper defines the key performance tests for the receiver, outlines test development considerations, and includes an Example Test Plan.

pdf - 5 MB
Tuesday, September 1, 2020
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White Papers: Making Time Sensitive Networks Resilient Against Threats White Paper Today's time sensitive networks rely on available and accurate positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) signals to provide leaders with the information required to make timely and effective decisions. The proliferation of GNSS-degrading and denying devices across state and non-state actors put this critical information capability in jeopardy. Learn how a combination of alternative PNT signals with traditional GNSS references makes PNT applications resilient against jamming and spoofing. White Paper
Friday, May 11, 2018
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White Papers: Time Synchronization: Time is at the Heart of the MiFID Regulation

New regulations from MiFID II in Europe to the Consolidated Audit Trail in the US mandate that reportable events must be timestamped to much more accurate levels than ever before and that regulated organizations must have a clear understanding of time for all information they are required to report. Europe’s MiFID II, in particular — which came into force on January 3, 2018 — is far more prescriptive with regards to timestamping, as defined by the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) within RTS 25.

White Paper
Wednesday, January 24, 2018
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White Papers: The Traceability of Time Synchronization: Why Internet Time Isn’t Good Enough

The traceability of time synchronization: This document briefly discusses the differences between a time source from within the network compared to outside the network with considerations for traceability for a network deployment of network time protocol (NTP).

pdf - 360 KB
Wednesday, March 6, 2019
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White Papers: Why Accurate Time is Essential for Video Surveillance and Security Programs With IP-based video surveillance hardware, commercial and government security professionals can now significantly improve their security system’s efficiency, performance and functionality by leveraging modern networking technologies. However, as is the case with any network, time synchronization – where all clocks in cameras, access systems, recording equipment, and computers have the same time – is essential, not only to ensure proper operation of your surveillance systems, but also to ensure the credibility of legal evidence. pdf - 2 MB
Tuesday, October 15, 2019
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White Papers: Tech Brief Resiliency in PNT: Cybersecurity This Orolia Tech Brief explores the basic steps for maintaining security using a network-connected time server and looks at different ways to achieve resiliency in PNT. As an example, we will start with our SecureSync® Time Server product line to demonstrate how to maintain security with this network-connected device. pdf - 351 KB
Friday, February 22, 2019
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White Papers: An Engineer’s Guide to CRPA Testing

CRPAs (Controlled Reception Pattern Antennas) are becoming increasingly common, particularly in the Defense sector. CRPAs are an extremely effective anti-jam/spoof solution, because they adapt dynamically in response to jamming or spoofing signals. It is important to know the direction from which the interference is coming, so that you do not receive that RF power into your GPS receiver. This is done by forming nulls in the direction of the interference, or by using beam forming techniques to isolate and track only the true satellite signals, ignoring theothers.

This guide discusses the applications and use cases for CRPAs, how they work and the methods for testing them. It also explores the various types of testing solutions available in the marketplace today, and helps you choose the right solution for your specific application.

pdf - 5 MB
Tuesday, August 11, 2020
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White Papers: The Importance of Testing to Detect GNSS Vulnerabilities in Intelligent Transportation Systems

For more than a decade, GPS has been at the core of the navigation systems used in all types of road vehicles, train systems and marine transport vehicles. As industry moves from standalone navigation systems to the advanced multi-sensor systems used in intelligent transportation systems (ITS), GPS signals remain a key component of these systems.

The development of autonomous vehicles for road, rail and water demands a comprehensive and repeatable test plan for GNSS. This white paper discusses and outlines testing methods for GNSS performance and vulnerabilities.

White Paper
Friday, October 26, 2018
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White Papers: Cost-effective Synchronization for Digital Broadcast In Europe, Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia, broadcasters are looking to the DVB-T2 standard to upgrade from analog transmission, their current DVB-T implementation, or as a supplemental network. Similarly, in South America, ISDB-T is being implemented. These and other standards rely more and more on single frequency networks (SFN) to efficiently utilize wireless frequency spectrum. SFNs require synchronization so for each instant of time, every transmission station is broadcasting the same digital data at the same exact frequency. pdf - 739 KB
Thursday, July 26, 2012
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White Papers: Mitigating an NTP Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack Network time service is not something many businesses think about as a key component of their critical infrastructures. In fact, it is often overlooked entirely, and in error. As a result, the network architect or engineer often defaults to an easy alternative: using a server or network switch as the source of the network clock and synchronizing these sources to Internet time servers using Network Time Protocol (NTP). This white paper discusses the risks of, and alternative solutions to, "NTP Over the Internet." Mitigating an NTP Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack
Wednesday, August 29, 2018
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White Papers: SmarTiming+ GPS/GNSS Disciplining Technology Whitepaper (Chinese) pdf - 635 KB
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White Papers: Resilient PNT Solutions for Telemetry During GNSS Outage Test Scenarios

GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) is key to effective situational awareness, providing critical Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) telemetry data for mobile military operations. Yet GPS/GNSS jamming and spoofing attacks are on the rise.

The disruption of GNSS for increasing periods of time through jamming/ spoofing must now be an essential test component in most test scenarios today. How can you still provide reliable Time-Space Position Information (TSPI) during periods of GNSS denial?

This white paper identifies technologies, best practices and strategies for GNSS jamming/spoofing detection and protection systems, and testing protocols to maintain a state of PNT readiness.

White Paper
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
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White Papers: Why Time Synchronization Is Critical for Improving Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) When 911 dispatch and other recording systems employ synchronized time solutions, the improved data records deliver measurable life-saving differences in their communities and provide the potential for reduced insurance rates. This white paper discusses key benefits to implementing a Legally Traceable Time® architecture. pdf - 952 KB
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
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White Papers: Simplifying the Path Alignment of Microwave Communication Systems

Wherever microwave links exist, the path between antennas has always required accurate antenna alignment. This process requires highly trained tower crews to physically align the antennas as well as ground technicians and sophisticated, expensive, and complex test equipment to monitor the results. The process of optimizing the transmission path of microwave communication systems is about to undergo a significant development in process, simplification and cost benefit without compromising performance or accuracy. The process can now be accomplished with the use of the Pendulum (formerly XL Microwave) Path Align-R Microwave Antenna Path Alignment Test Sets. Tower installation crews can now perform the entire alignment process themselves, up the tower, at the antenna, without the need of additional ground technicians, equipment, or indeed, even the waveguides or radios installed.

By Fernando Torrelio, is President and Chief Engineer of Aurora Genesis Communications Inc., a microwave, cellular, PCS, & LMDS engineering, maintenance, installation, and testing company supporting the technical requirements of the wireless communications industry. 

pdf - 132 KB
Thursday, May 3, 2012
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White Papers: The Importance of Low Phase Noise in Military Mobile Applications Military communications and intelligence-collection functions, traditionally associated with fixed sites and large platforms, are being pushed to tactical vehicles and sophisticated Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAVs). This results in more C5ISR systems being installed on mobile platforms. Whether in the air, on land, or at sea, these vehicles will impart shocks and vibrations to their electronics, sometimes severely. In high vibration environments, the system designer must account for induced phase noise which can drastically affect overall performance. This white paper discusses the challenges of keeping low noise signals pure in any environment. pdf - 903 KB
Wednesday, August 22, 2018
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White Papers: Synchronized Time Improves Healthcare As the healthcare industry embraces technology to improve patient care and reduce costs, integrating disparate systems is critical for maximizing performance. Something as simple as a common basis for time-keeping can make a difference in records accuracy, device and system interoperability, security, regulatory compliance, and overall efficiency of operations. As technology implementations are network centric, time-keeping in software and hardware can be easily synchronized to the official worldwide time standard. pdf - 664 KB
Wednesday, September 30, 2015
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White Papers: Practical Guide to GADSS Autonomous Distress Tracking Implementation

The Autonomous Distress Tracking (ADT) mandate is part of the Global Aeronautical Distress and Safety System (GADSS) initiative launched by ICAO after several accidents where downed aircraft could not be located at all, or only after long and expensive search efforts.

While most airlines have already complied with the normal tracking mandate due by the end of 2018, the ADT requirement for January 2021 is approaching fast. It is designed to improve the location of aircraft in the critical phase, when the aircraft is in distress, anywhere in the world.

GADSS White Paper
Monday, December 3, 2018
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White Papers: Time for Data Centers to Consider Time as a Service If you are in the data center business, you’re faced with a long list of customer demands as businesses and entire industries move operations to the cloud. But you’re also facing an increasingly competitive landscape where offering the best service and greatest value is paramount. Balancing what you can offer customers and at what cost can be complicated, to say the least. An often overlooked service offering, one which provides a large value to customers at a low cost to providers, is Time as a Service (TaaS). pdf - 472 KB
Tuesday, April 21, 2015
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White Papers: A Master Clock Approach to Distributing Precision Time and Frequency Traditional time and frequency distribution is defined by splitting and amplifying a signal to as many devices as needed. The distribution amplifier became a mainstay in precision time and frequency systems. Today there is greater access to precision timing considering more clocks in space transmitting global navigation signals and more network connectivity able to maintain higher levels of timing accuracy. A new generation of master clocks is capable of leveraging these trends while offering flexibility to generate the signal types and quantities wherever needed. Distribution amplifiers can still be an important “brick” in the system to meet needs for redundancy, reliability and cost-efficiency. This white paper describes the issue of providing precise time and frequency signals of the type and quantity needed by the application using commercial-off-the-shelf devices from Spectracom. pdf - 652 KB
Friday, January 31, 2014
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White Papers: Ligado and GPS Interference: What You Need to Know Now

Recent news about the FCC granting Ligado Networks new licenses to broadcast in the band adjacent to GPS has raised concern among many in the GPS community about the possibility of interference. Will GPS operations near Ligado ground transmitters be interrupted?

At Orolia, we support the position of the DOT, DHS and DOD and the measures they are taking to protect the GNSS band. However, interference is a fact of life in this band. GNSS signals are very weak, so additional measures must be taken for resiliency, especially for critical infrastructure.

Adversarial interference can be much worse than this, so a range of solutions are possible: From the simple – for example, a horizon blocking antenna that shields energy from a nearby tower – to full multi-layer defenses that include RF filtering, advanced DSP filtering/detection, alternative PNT from STL signals, atomic clock and IMU backup, and CRPA antennas. No one solution covers every case, but the problem can be managed.

pdf - 859 KB
Friday, August 14, 2020
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Visio: 9300 Series NetClock and Related Time Sync Products Visio Shapes Visio shapes for NetClock model 9383, 9389, 9388 and other related time synchronization products. vss - 2 MB
Friday, August 3, 2012
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Visio: Broadcast Network Sync Visio Shapes Vizio shapes for Spectracom synchronization and test products and other network elements typically found in a synchronized digital broadcast network. vss - 182 KB
Friday, August 3, 2012
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Visio: NetClock 9300 Series Rear Panel Visio Shapes Visio shape line drawings of 9383, 9389, 9388 rear panels. vss - 631 KB
Friday, August 3, 2012
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Visio: NetClock 9483 and Accessories Visio Shapes Visio shapes for NetClock 9483 popular configurations - front and rear panels - with typical add-on products. VSS - 570 KB
Monday, October 21, 2013
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Visio: SecureSync Visio Shapes A couple of Visio shapes for the SecureSync modular time and frequency reference system. vss - 36 KB
Thursday, July 11, 2013
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Leap Second Solution for Spectratime GXClok-500 pdf - 58 KB
Wednesday, December 12, 2018
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Reminder on ELT battery replacement requirements: SL S18XX50X-25-03 Rev 00 – Issue Feb. 10/2016 pdf - 426 KB
Wednesday, February 10, 2016
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Technical Notes and Briefs: iSync+ Lifetime & MTBF Performance pdf - 174 KB
Friday, August 1, 2008
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Clock Accuracy in Computer Networks Network time synchronization relies on using a secure, accurate and reliable time source to improve network operations and management. pdf - 124 KB
Thursday, July 26, 2012
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Technical Notes and Briefs: In-Field Coax Connector Test Using the Path Align-R A Path Align-R test set can be used in lieu of expensive cable sweeping equipment. Simply attach the Path Align-R to each end of the connectorized coax and measure the “Cable Loss” at the specific frequency the cable will see during operation. Also, if more than one coax is going to be attached to the tower, you can compare the “Cable Loss” of each coax before they are installed. pdf - 205 KB
Thursday, May 3, 2012
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Maintenance Policy for all Kannad ELTs: SL S18XX50X-25-02 Rev 04 – Issue Jan. 24/2018 pdf - 137 KB
Wednesday, January 24, 2018
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Technical Notes and Briefs: LPFRS Failure Rate Failure rate data for the Spectratime LPFRS timing module. pdf - 167 KB
Tuesday, November 16, 2004
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Technical Notes and Briefs: EpsilTime™ Synchronization Algorithm Spectracom time and frequency synchronization management algorithms, like EpsilTime™ used in models EC20S and EC22S, uses smart predictive technology to mitigate the effects of inherent GPS and oscillator noise, improves accuracy if GPS is lost(holdover), and corrects drift in the 10 MHz and 1PPS outputs simultaneously. That means there are always 10 million frequency cycles between every one pulse-per-second. pdf - 122 KB
Thursday, July 26, 2012
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Aligning Antenna Links Using Frequencies Outside of the Path Align-R Band Range An antenna system whose link frequency is designed outside the frequency band edge of the Path Align-R can still have its path alignment correctly adjusted, as long as the antenna system uses a waveguide which can operate at both the link frequency and a nearby frequency covered by the Path Align-R. pdf - 539 KB
Thursday, May 3, 2012
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Kannad recommendations following Cobham SB 02/2011 and EASA AD 2011-0103: SL S18XXXXX-25-02 Rev 00 – Issue Jun. 15/2011 pdf - 214 KB
Wednesday, June 15, 2011
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Technical Notes and Briefs: How to Restore Analog Radio Coverage Stolen by Narrowbanding Coverage problems were created when analog systems were narrow-banded. Mission critical communications
demand the ability of officers in the field to communicate when necessary. Simulcast and receiver voting
can improve talk-in with maximum return on your investment – which is far less expensive than a major
infrastructure build-out to add channels or a forklift radio change to P25 or DMR.
pdf - 523 KB
Tuesday, July 2, 2019
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Technical Notes and Briefs: iSource+ Low Cost LPFRS Performance Performance data for Low Cost & Profile Frequency Rubidium Standard (LPFRS). pdf - 487 KB
Monday, March 10, 2003
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Outdoor GPS Antenna Installation Considerations Many Orolia timing and synchronization products utilize an embedded GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) receiver as a primary reference. Typical installations utilize an outdoor active GNSS antenna to collect and transmit GNSS satellite radio signals to the receiver via an RF cable. This technical note describes the main considerations for a successful outdoor GNSS antenna installation for a timing application: pdf - 325 KB
Friday, January 25, 2019
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Technical Notes and Briefs: A Summary of References for the Design of Microwave Links Here is a summary of wireless supporting information useful in the design and management of microwave links. pdf - 225 KB
Sunday, May 3, 2015
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Technical Notes and Briefs: NTP Server Capacity Testing Large-scale NTP deployments require consideration for the network’s time synchronization architecture. Network time deployments are usually driven by considerations for reliability, scalability, manageability and security. The capability of modern NTP servers, such as Spectracom SecureSync® and NetClock® time servers, is such that capacity does not impact the design of the synchronization architecture.  pdf - 202 KB
Wednesday, February 13, 2019
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