Product Documents & Files

Typesort descending Title Date
Technical Notes and Briefs: Periodic inspection of Kannad 406 ELTs: S18XX502-25-12 Rev 06 Rev 06 – Issue Mar. 16/2020 pdf - 612 KB
Monday, March 16, 2020
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Differences Between NTP and SNTP NTP (Network Time Protocol) and SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol) are very similar TCP/IP protocols in that they use the same time packet from a Time Server message to compute accurate time. The procedure used by the Time Server to assemble and send out a time stamp is exactly the same whether NTP (i.e. full implementation NTP) is being used, or if SNTP is being used. pdf - 64 KB
Wednesday, February 13, 2019
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Time Server Port Isolation for Secure Networks When leveraging a single master clock / time server across several network segments there are various approaches to port isolation: software isolation, or hardware isolation via multiple processors, unidirectional communication of timing data, or electrical isolation by using fiber optics. pdf - 68 KB
Tuesday, December 23, 2014
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Galileo GIOVE Atomic Rubidium & Passive Maser Clocks The Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element (GIOVE) is an experiment led by the European Space Agency (ESA) aimed at supporting the on-going implementation of Galileo, the European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). pdf - 947 KB
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Lifetime of Space Passive Hydrogen Maser Accurate and ultra-stable space qualified atomic clocks represent critical equipment for the precision Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The Passive Hydrogen Maser (PHM), with its excellent frequency stability performance, is the master clock for European Navigation satellite payload, and is the most stable clock ever flown for GNSS. pdf - 500 KB
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Spectratime Product Safety Data Sheet (PSDS) PSDS (Product Safety Data Sheet) contains information which should answer any questions relating to handling/shipping of Rubidium (Rb) oscillators and products containing those oscillators. pdf - 43 KB
Wednesday, December 12, 2018
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Outdoor GPS Antenna Installation Considerations Many Orolia timing and synchronization products utilize an embedded GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) receiver as a primary reference. Typical installations utilize an outdoor active GNSS antenna to collect and transmit GNSS satellite radio signals to the receiver via an RF cable. This technical note describes the main considerations for a successful outdoor GNSS antenna installation for a timing application: pdf - 325 KB
Friday, January 25, 2019
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Periodic inspection of Compact and Integra ELT: S18XX501-25-01 Rev01 Rev 01 – Issue Mar. 16/2020 pdf - 706 KB
Monday, March 16, 2020
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Changes in the WWVB Radio Signal Affects Precision Frequency and Timing Reference

Spectracom had used the WWVB signal to synchronize its time and frequency references and master clocks in North America before the wide-spread use of GPS for precision timing applications. The last of these WWVB products has not been promoted for over 10 years and officially went end-of-life in 2005. A change in the WWVB signal was being considered in recent years to reduce impact of electro-magnetic interference and allowing for improved reception in consumer-grade clocks and watches1. However, this change affects the operation of precise time and frequency standards whose receivers are based on phase-locked loops, such as Spectracom WWVB receivers, so these products will no longer operate as intended.

References:
[1] J.P. Lowe, “We Help Move Time through the Air”, Radio World, March 23, 2011, Vol. 35, No. 8 pp. 69, 70.

pdf - 105 KB
Thursday, March 12, 2015
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Technical Notes and Briefs: iSource+ Rubidium Clock Lifetime and MTBF Data LPFRS / RMO / STARLPRO / LNRClok / GRClok Rubidium Clock Lifetime and MTBF pdf - 256 KB
Saturday, November 1, 2014
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Email Notification Setup for SecureSync and NetClock 9400 This document is designed to help you configure Email Alerts to generate automatic emails when certain events occur on an Orolia time server with 5.1.x software. pdf - 759 KB
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Time Synchronization for Secure Networks using Fiber Government and military networks often utilize the concept of unclassified (black) networks vs classified (red) networks to manage levels of information security. Since a complete “air-gap” around a highly sensitive network is not practical, every data connection is evaluated as a security risk. To synchronize a master source of time on a red network, Spectracom offers a fiber optical IRIG time code link between a SecureSync master-slave pair to offer high accuracy timing to a classified network while satisfying the requirements of SIPRNET, NIPRNET and other ultra-secure network systems. pdf - 254 KB
Thursday, May 8, 2014
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Atomic Clocks and Timing Systems in Global Navigation Satellite Systems Accurate and ultra-stable atomic clocks have been recognized as the critical equipment for the precision Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). SpectraTime (SpT) and T4Science (T4S) are space and ground clocks manufacturers of Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard (RAFS) and Active & Passive Hydrogen Maser (HM) for various navigation systems (European, Chinese and Indian) and other programs. pdf - 689 KB
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Leap Second Solution for Spectratime GXClok-500 pdf - 58 KB
Wednesday, December 12, 2018
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Technical Notes and Briefs: GPS Lightning Surge Protection Facilities with connections to the outside may suffer damage due to lightning. Electronic components are extremely sensitive to high voltage from major energy sources such as lightning, which is the most common danger. It also has the characteristic of being completely unforeseeable. To protect people and equipment from lightning, it is essential to ensure that all wired connections from building exteriors include the appropriate form of protection. pdf - 134 KB
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Sensor Simulation with GPS Testing GPS simulators are able to test the integration of a GPS/GNSS receiver into a nav system by generating signals corresponding to virtually any condition including vehicle dynamics. They can also generate signals for other sensors for a comprehensive system test. As the simulator generates satellite data for a given trajectory, it simultaneously calculates position and attitude data in six degrees of freedom in real-time; forward/backward, left/right and up/down as well as the rotations about three perpendicular axes, pitch, yaw, and roll; which can be queried and used in integrated test systems. pdf - 181 KB
Monday, December 31, 2018
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Reminder on ELT battery replacement requirements: SL S18XX50X-25-03 Rev 00 – Issue Feb. 10/2016 pdf - 426 KB
Wednesday, February 10, 2016
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Technical Notes and Briefs: A Guide for Testers of GPS Devices and Systems What you want to know about GPS for testers of GPS devices and systems. pdf - 233 KB
Monday, December 31, 2018
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Technical Notes and Briefs: iSync+ Lifetime & MTBF Performance pdf - 174 KB
Friday, August 1, 2008
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Routing of Data Across Multiple Networks This technical note provides a general description of the software routing scheme of a single Spectracom unit with multiple network ports and offers alternative timing hardware deployments if software isolation is insufficient. pdf - 110 KB
Wednesday, February 13, 2019
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Technical Notes and Briefs: STANAG / HaveQuick Synchronization STAndard NAto Agreement is a set of minimal specifications aiming at providing interoperability between military equipment deployed by NATO nations. In the area of communications, several STANAGs include specifications related to time and frequency to allow reliable operation of highly protected radio communication networks or links. As a leading provider of Time & Frequency systems for military forces, Spectracom offers high accuracy, high reliability, and flexible solutions to synchronize communication systems in compliance with the relevant STANAGs. This technical note provides a brief description of the main time and frequency related STANAGs as well as their implementation as an option board for the SecureSync Master Clock system. pdf - 420 KB
Thursday, November 17, 2011
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Programming Interfaces for Automation and Remote Control for GSG Series Simulators One of the benefits of Orolia GSG Series GPS/GNSS simulators is that it does not require any external controller and can operate for 31 days continuously (longer if the unit is connected to the internet). However, there are many situations where remote control from an external program is helpful and required when integrating GPS signals with other test parameters. GSG simulators can be connected to a PC using Ethernet, GPIB or USB. A SCPI command set allows for remote control and integration into test systems. pdf - 137 KB
Monday, December 31, 2018
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Technical Notes and Briefs: Maintenance Policy for all Kannad ELTs: SL S18XX50X-25-02 Rev 04 – Issue Jan. 24/2018 pdf - 137 KB
Wednesday, January 24, 2018
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Visio: NetClock 9300 Series Rear Panel Visio Shapes Visio shape line drawings of 9383, 9389, 9388 rear panels. vss - 631 KB
Friday, August 3, 2012
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Visio: NetClock 9483 and Accessories Visio Shapes Visio shapes for NetClock 9483 popular configurations - front and rear panels - with typical add-on products. VSS - 570 KB
Monday, October 21, 2013
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Visio: SecureSync Visio Shapes A couple of Visio shapes for the SecureSync modular time and frequency reference system. vss - 36 KB
Thursday, July 11, 2013
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Visio: 9300 Series NetClock and Related Time Sync Products Visio Shapes Visio shapes for NetClock model 9383, 9389, 9388 and other related time synchronization products. vss - 2 MB
Friday, August 3, 2012
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Visio: Broadcast Network Sync Visio Shapes Vizio shapes for Spectracom synchronization and test products and other network elements typically found in a synchronized digital broadcast network. vss - 182 KB
Friday, August 3, 2012
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White Papers: The Advent of Tightly Synchronized Clocks in Distributed Systems The last decade has brought a paradigm shift in computing systems from single processor devices — whose performance plateaued — to distributed computing systems. In distributed systems, nodes execute concurrently with limited information about what the other nodes are executing at the moment. A key component of distributed coordination is the enforcement of consistent views at all nodes for the ordering of significant events. To this end, events are "timestamped" with logical counters or — increasingly lately — with tightly-synchronized physical time. White Paper
Friday, May 11, 2018
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White Papers: Resilient PNT: How to Detect, Protect and Prevent Disruption of GPS/GNSS/PNT Signals and Sources

For the last two decades, reliance upon GPS/GNSS for positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) by civilian applications has been an overwhelming success, providing increasingly accurate and reliable PNT information everywhere for free. However, in recent years, malicious threats have emerged that exposed the Achilles heel of GPS/GNSS: Its weak power and unencrypted signal format leave it vulnerable to jamming and spoofing. The loss of PNT information can result in rare but catastrophic events, crippling critical infrastructure that is necessary for our survival.

Fortunately, there are many alternative technologies available to augment GPS and provide accurate and reliable PNT information even under extremely adverse conditions. These include:

  • Low Earth Orbit (LEO) PNT satellite signals – operating close to the Earth, with signal strengths ~1000x stronger than GPS, to overcome jamming. And, encrypted to prevent spoofing.
  • Miniaturized, affordable atomic clocks to provide precise time internally – which is the foundation of every positioning system – without connection to, or reliance on, outside sources which could corrupt the precision.
  • Fiber optic network time distribution via secure, high accuracy protocols.

In this white paper, we will discuss these alternative technologies and offer recommendations for procedures and processes to manage and avoid the risks of cyberattacks, applying the best practices known today. We will focus on Resilient PNT and describe the strategies, technologies and procedures to avoid these cybersecurity risks and ensure the continuity of any critical operation.

pdf - 8 MB
Wednesday, September 2, 2020
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White Papers: Protecting the U.S. Military From GPS Jamming and Spoofing White Paper Military forces need GPS to provide critical, precise information, but GPS is vulnerable and can be exploited. This white paper from C4ISRNET discusses how preparation and countermeasures can assure forces maintain critical capabilities. Download white paper
Wednesday, April 15, 2020
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White Papers: MiFID II Clock Sync Requirements Checklist

In January 2018, MiFID II RTS 25 compliance began, including five requirements for timing synchronization. Use this detailed checklist to make sure that you’re aware of the key considerations, your timing chain is ready and you're fully compliant.

MiFID II Checklist
Friday, January 19, 2018
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White Papers: Creating a GNSS Test Plan: A Start to Finish Guide

The low cost and high performance of GNSS receiver chipsets makes it easier than ever to include a GNSS receiver in products that never had them before. With the availability of multiple GNSS constellations that transmit signals on multiple frequencies, and various available technologies to improve the accuracy of GNSS, evaluating and selecting a receiver can be a significant undertaking.

How a GNSS receiver is integrated can have a major impact on product and system performance. To ensure success, a best practice is to perform testing using a GNSS simulator, which allows for repeatable testing of devices with GNSS receivers in simulated environments.

This white paper defines the key performance tests for the receiver, outlines test development considerations, and includes an Example Test Plan.

pdf - 5 MB
Tuesday, September 1, 2020
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White Papers: Cost-effective Synchronization for Digital Broadcast In Europe, Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia, broadcasters are looking to the DVB-T2 standard to upgrade from analog transmission, their current DVB-T implementation, or as a supplemental network. Similarly, in South America, ISDB-T is being implemented. These and other standards rely more and more on single frequency networks (SFN) to efficiently utilize wireless frequency spectrum. SFNs require synchronization so for each instant of time, every transmission station is broadcasting the same digital data at the same exact frequency. pdf - 739 KB
Thursday, July 26, 2012
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White Papers: Making Time Sensitive Networks Resilient Against Threats White Paper Today's time sensitive networks rely on available and accurate positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) signals to provide leaders with the information required to make timely and effective decisions. The proliferation of GNSS-degrading and denying devices across state and non-state actors put this critical information capability in jeopardy. Learn how a combination of alternative PNT signals with traditional GNSS references makes PNT applications resilient against jamming and spoofing. White Paper
Friday, May 11, 2018
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White Papers: Time Synchronization: Time is at the Heart of the MiFID Regulation

New regulations from MiFID II in Europe to the Consolidated Audit Trail in the US mandate that reportable events must be timestamped to much more accurate levels than ever before and that regulated organizations must have a clear understanding of time for all information they are required to report. Europe’s MiFID II, in particular — which came into force on January 3, 2018 — is far more prescriptive with regards to timestamping, as defined by the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) within RTS 25.

White Paper
Wednesday, January 24, 2018
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White Papers: The Traceability of Time Synchronization: Why Internet Time Isn’t Good Enough

The traceability of time synchronization: This document briefly discusses the differences between a time source from within the network compared to outside the network with considerations for traceability for a network deployment of network time protocol (NTP).

pdf - 360 KB
Wednesday, March 6, 2019
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White Papers: Simplifying the Path Alignment of Microwave Communication Systems

Wherever microwave links exist, the path between antennas has always required accurate antenna alignment. This process requires highly trained tower crews to physically align the antennas as well as ground technicians and sophisticated, expensive, and complex test equipment to monitor the results. The process of optimizing the transmission path of microwave communication systems is about to undergo a significant development in process, simplification and cost benefit without compromising performance or accuracy. The process can now be accomplished with the use of the Pendulum (formerly XL Microwave) Path Align-R Microwave Antenna Path Alignment Test Sets. Tower installation crews can now perform the entire alignment process themselves, up the tower, at the antenna, without the need of additional ground technicians, equipment, or indeed, even the waveguides or radios installed.

By Fernando Torrelio, is President and Chief Engineer of Aurora Genesis Communications Inc., a microwave, cellular, PCS, & LMDS engineering, maintenance, installation, and testing company supporting the technical requirements of the wireless communications industry. 

pdf - 132 KB
Thursday, May 3, 2012
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White Papers: Why Accurate Time is Essential for Video Surveillance and Security Programs With IP-based video surveillance hardware, commercial and government security professionals can now significantly improve their security system’s efficiency, performance and functionality by leveraging modern networking technologies. However, as is the case with any network, time synchronization – where all clocks in cameras, access systems, recording equipment, and computers have the same time – is essential, not only to ensure proper operation of your surveillance systems, but also to ensure the credibility of legal evidence. pdf - 2 MB
Tuesday, October 15, 2019
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White Papers: An Engineer’s Guide to CRPA Testing

CRPAs (Controlled Reception Pattern Antennas) are becoming increasingly common, particularly in the Defense sector. CRPAs are an extremely effective anti-jam/spoof solution, because they adapt dynamically in response to jamming or spoofing signals. It is important to know the direction from which the interference is coming, so that you do not receive that RF power into your GPS receiver. This is done by forming nulls in the direction of the interference, or by using beam forming techniques to isolate and track only the true satellite signals, ignoring theothers.

This guide discusses the applications and use cases for CRPAs, how they work and the methods for testing them. It also explores the various types of testing solutions available in the marketplace today, and helps you choose the right solution for your specific application.

pdf - 5 MB
Tuesday, August 11, 2020
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White Papers: Synchronized Time Improves Healthcare As the healthcare industry embraces technology to improve patient care and reduce costs, integrating disparate systems is critical for maximizing performance. Something as simple as a common basis for time-keeping can make a difference in records accuracy, device and system interoperability, security, regulatory compliance, and overall efficiency of operations. As technology implementations are network centric, time-keeping in software and hardware can be easily synchronized to the official worldwide time standard. pdf - 664 KB
Wednesday, September 30, 2015
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White Papers: Tech Brief Resiliency in PNT: Cybersecurity This Orolia Tech Brief explores the basic steps for maintaining security using a network-connected time server and looks at different ways to achieve resiliency in PNT. As an example, we will start with our SecureSync® Time Server product line to demonstrate how to maintain security with this network-connected device. pdf - 351 KB
Friday, February 22, 2019
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White Papers: The Importance of Testing to Detect GNSS Vulnerabilities in Intelligent Transportation Systems

For more than a decade, GPS has been at the core of the navigation systems used in all types of road vehicles, train systems and marine transport vehicles. As industry moves from standalone navigation systems to the advanced multi-sensor systems used in intelligent transportation systems (ITS), GPS signals remain a key component of these systems.

The development of autonomous vehicles for road, rail and water demands a comprehensive and repeatable test plan for GNSS. This white paper discusses and outlines testing methods for GNSS performance and vulnerabilities.

White Paper
Friday, October 26, 2018
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White Papers: Time for Data Centers to Consider Time as a Service If you are in the data center business, you’re faced with a long list of customer demands as businesses and entire industries move operations to the cloud. But you’re also facing an increasingly competitive landscape where offering the best service and greatest value is paramount. Balancing what you can offer customers and at what cost can be complicated, to say the least. An often overlooked service offering, one which provides a large value to customers at a low cost to providers, is Time as a Service (TaaS). pdf - 472 KB
Tuesday, April 21, 2015
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White Papers: Leap Second Readiness Tips If you manage a time-sensitive network, you'll want to consider how a leap second event will effect your applications. We offer these tips to help you be prepared. pdf - 224 KB
Monday, December 31, 2018
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White Papers: Mitigating an NTP Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack Network time service is not something many businesses think about as a key component of their critical infrastructures. In fact, it is often overlooked entirely, and in error. As a result, the network architect or engineer often defaults to an easy alternative: using a server or network switch as the source of the network clock and synchronizing these sources to Internet time servers using Network Time Protocol (NTP). This white paper discusses the risks of, and alternative solutions to, "NTP Over the Internet." Mitigating an NTP Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack
Wednesday, August 29, 2018
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White Papers: SmarTiming+ GPS/GNSS Disciplining Technology Whitepaper (Chinese) pdf - 635 KB
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White Papers: A Master Clock Approach to Distributing Precision Time and Frequency Traditional time and frequency distribution is defined by splitting and amplifying a signal to as many devices as needed. The distribution amplifier became a mainstay in precision time and frequency systems. Today there is greater access to precision timing considering more clocks in space transmitting global navigation signals and more network connectivity able to maintain higher levels of timing accuracy. A new generation of master clocks is capable of leveraging these trends while offering flexibility to generate the signal types and quantities wherever needed. Distribution amplifiers can still be an important “brick” in the system to meet needs for redundancy, reliability and cost-efficiency. This white paper describes the issue of providing precise time and frequency signals of the type and quantity needed by the application using commercial-off-the-shelf devices from Spectracom. pdf - 652 KB
Friday, January 31, 2014
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White Papers: Why Time Synchronization Is Critical for Improving Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) When 911 dispatch and other recording systems employ synchronized time solutions, the improved data records deliver measurable life-saving differences in their communities and provide the potential for reduced insurance rates. This white paper discusses key benefits to implementing a Legally Traceable Time® architecture. pdf - 952 KB
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
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White Papers: Resilient PNT Solutions for Telemetry During GNSS Outage Test Scenarios

GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) is key to effective situational awareness, providing critical Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) telemetry data for mobile military operations. Yet GPS/GNSS jamming and spoofing attacks are on the rise.

The disruption of GNSS for increasing periods of time through jamming/ spoofing must now be an essential test component in most test scenarios today. How can you still provide reliable Time-Space Position Information (TSPI) during periods of GNSS denial?

This white paper identifies technologies, best practices and strategies for GNSS jamming/spoofing detection and protection systems, and testing protocols to maintain a state of PNT readiness.

White Paper
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
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