Product Documents & Files

Typesort descending Title Date
White Papers: MiFID II Clock Sync Requirements Checklist

In January 2018, MiFID II RTS 25 compliance began, including five requirements for timing synchronization. Use this detailed checklist to make sure that you’re aware of the key considerations, your timing chain is ready and you're fully compliant.

pdf - 2 MB
Friday, January 19, 2018
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White Papers: Creating a GNSS Test Plan: A Start to Finish Guide

The low cost and high performance of GNSS receiver chipsets makes it easier than ever to include a GNSS receiver in products that never had them before. With the availability of multiple GNSS constellations that transmit signals on multiple frequencies, and various available technologies to improve the accuracy of GNSS, evaluating and selecting a receiver can be a significant undertaking.

How a GNSS receiver is integrated can have a major impact on product and system performance. To ensure success, a best practice is to perform testing using a GNSS simulator, which allows for repeatable testing of devices with GNSS receivers in simulated environments.

This white paper defines the key performance tests for the receiver, outlines test development considerations, and includes an Example Test Plan.

pdf - 5 MB
Tuesday, September 1, 2020
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White Papers: The Importance of Testing to Detect GNSS Vulnerabilities in Intelligent Transportation Systems

For more than a decade, GPS has been at the core of the navigation systems used in all types of road vehicles, train systems and marine transport vehicles. As industry moves from standalone navigation systems to the advanced multi-sensor systems used in intelligent transportation systems (ITS), GPS signals remain a key component of these systems.

The development of autonomous vehicles for road, rail and water demands a comprehensive and repeatable test plan for GNSS. This white paper discusses and outlines testing methods for GNSS performance and vulnerabilities.

pdf - 774 KB
Friday, October 26, 2018
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White Papers: The Traceability of Time Synchronization: Why Internet Time Isn’t Good Enough

The traceability of time synchronization: This document briefly discusses the differences between a time source from within the network compared to outside the network with considerations for traceability for a network deployment of network time protocol (NTP).

pdf - 360 KB
Wednesday, March 6, 2019
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White Papers: Navigating With More Than Just GPS

The resurgence of the automotive industry has come with strong buyer interest in technology to improve safety, convenience and awareness in the automobile. GPS is one such technology that has strong consumer demand. While a GPS receiver is at the heart of any navigation system, applications for GPS extend to a wide range of automotive systems. Virtually anything with a sensor can take advantage of GPS data such as date, time, precise frequency, altitude, heading, velocity partly because it is very accurate and independent of any other system. But GPS is not the only satellite in the sky anymore. More and more Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are being developed and deployed. Receivers are available to make use of multiple systems that, when used together, improves accuracy and reliability.

pdf - 287 KB
Thursday, May 17, 2012
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White Papers: Time Synchronization: Time is at the Heart of the MiFID Regulation

New regulations from MiFID II in Europe to the Consolidated Audit Trail in the US mandate that reportable events must be timestamped to much more accurate levels than ever before and that regulated organizations must have a clear understanding of time for all information they are required to report. Europe’s MiFID II, in particular — which came into force on January 3, 2018 — is far more prescriptive with regards to timestamping, as defined by the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) within RTS 25.

pdf - 365 KB
Wednesday, January 24, 2018
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White Papers: Mitigating an NTP Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack Network time service is not something many businesses think about as a key component of their critical infrastructures. In fact, it is often overlooked entirely, and in error. As a result, the network architect or engineer often defaults to an easy alternative: using a server or network switch as the source of the network clock and synchronizing these sources to Internet time servers using Network Time Protocol (NTP). This white paper discusses the risks of, and alternative solutions to, "NTP Over the Internet." pdf - 722 KB
Wednesday, August 29, 2018
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White Papers: Resilient PNT Solutions for Telemetry During GNSS Outage Test Scenarios

GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) is key to effective situational awareness, providing critical Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) telemetry data for mobile military operations. Yet GPS/GNSS jamming and spoofing attacks are on the rise.

The disruption of GNSS for increasing periods of time through jamming/ spoofing must now be an essential test component in most test scenarios today. How can you still provide reliable Time-Space Position Information (TSPI) during periods of GNSS denial?

This white paper identifies technologies, best practices and strategies for GNSS jamming/spoofing detection and protection systems, and testing protocols to maintain a state of PNT readiness.

pdf - 2 MB
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
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White Papers: A Calibrated Precision GNSS Simulator for Timing Applications This paper shows the results of a project underway to take an affordable but fully capable precise GNSS simulator and calibrate its RF output so a receiver’s 1PPS can be measured. The goal is to calibrate the 1PPS output reference output of the simulator relative to the simulator’s RF output to a resolution of 0.1 ns for any particular constellation signal. pdf - 621 KB
Monday, December 16, 2013
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White Papers: The Importance of Low Phase Noise in Military Mobile Applications Military communications and intelligence-collection functions, traditionally associated with fixed sites and large platforms, are being pushed to tactical vehicles and sophisticated Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAVs). This results in more C5ISR systems being installed on mobile platforms. Whether in the air, on land, or at sea, these vehicles will impart shocks and vibrations to their electronics, sometimes severely. In high vibration environments, the system designer must account for induced phase noise which can drastically affect overall performance. This white paper discusses the challenges of keeping low noise signals pure in any environment. pdf - 903 KB
Wednesday, August 22, 2018
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White Papers: Cost-effective Synchronization for Digital Broadcast In Europe, Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia, broadcasters are looking to the DVB-T2 standard to upgrade from analog transmission, their current DVB-T implementation, or as a supplemental network. Similarly, in South America, ISDB-T is being implemented. These and other standards rely more and more on single frequency networks (SFN) to efficiently utilize wireless frequency spectrum. SFNs require synchronization so for each instant of time, every transmission station is broadcasting the same digital data at the same exact frequency. pdf - 739 KB
Thursday, July 26, 2012
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White Papers: An Engineer’s Guide to CRPA Testing

CRPAs (Controlled Reception Pattern Antennas) are becoming increasingly common, particularly in the Defense sector. CRPAs are an extremely effective anti-jam/spoof solution, because they adapt dynamically in response to jamming or spoofing signals. It is important to know the direction from which the interference is coming, so that you do not receive that RF power into your GPS receiver. This is done by forming nulls in the direction of the interference, or by using beam forming techniques to isolate and track only the true satellite signals, ignoring theothers.

This guide discusses the applications and use cases for CRPAs, how they work and the methods for testing them. It also explores the various types of testing solutions available in the marketplace today, and helps you choose the right solution for your specific application.

pdf - 5 MB
Friday, September 18, 2020
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White Papers: Metamodel-Assisted Disciplining Algorithm for Detecting Spoofed GNSS Time Signals

This article was originally presented at the 2014 PTTI conference. It describes various approaches to a disciplining algorithm to detect and mitigate the effect of GNSS spoofing on precision time signals.

pdf - 914 KB
Monday, December 1, 2014
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White Papers: Practical Guide to GADSS Autonomous Distress Tracking Implementation

The Autonomous Distress Tracking (ADT) mandate is part of the Global Aeronautical Distress and Safety System (GADSS) initiative launched by ICAO after several accidents where downed aircraft could not be located at all, or only after long and expensive search efforts.

While most airlines have already complied with the normal tracking mandate due by the end of 2018, the ADT requirement for January 2023 is approaching fast. It is designed to improve the location of aircraft in the critical phase, when the aircraft is in distress, anywhere in the world.

pdf - 2 MB
Monday, December 3, 2018
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White Papers: Simplifying the Path Alignment of Microwave Communication Systems

Wherever microwave links exist, the path between antennas has always required accurate antenna alignment. This process requires highly trained tower crews to physically align the antennas as well as ground technicians and sophisticated, expensive, and complex test equipment to monitor the results. The process of optimizing the transmission path of microwave communication systems is about to undergo a significant development in process, simplification and cost benefit without compromising performance or accuracy. The process can now be accomplished with the use of the Pendulum (formerly XL Microwave) Path Align-R Microwave Antenna Path Alignment Test Sets. Tower installation crews can now perform the entire alignment process themselves, up the tower, at the antenna, without the need of additional ground technicians, equipment, or indeed, even the waveguides or radios installed.

By Fernando Torrelio, is President and Chief Engineer of Aurora Genesis Communications Inc., a microwave, cellular, PCS, & LMDS engineering, maintenance, installation, and testing company supporting the technical requirements of the wireless communications industry. 

pdf - 132 KB
Thursday, May 3, 2012
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White Papers: Leap Second Readiness Tips If you manage a time-sensitive network, you'll want to consider how a leap second event will effect your applications. We offer these tips to help you be prepared. pdf - 224 KB
Monday, December 31, 2018
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White Papers: Testing GNSS Receivers to Harden Against Spoofing Attacks Spoofing is an attempt to deceive the GNSS/GPS receiver by broadcasting signals that the receiver will use instead of the live sky signals. This article describes a test system for spoofing allows testing the three major factors to consider in a spoofing attack, time synchronization to the signals to be spoofed, power level of the spoofing signal compared to the live sky signals, and accuracy of the position obtained by the spoofing signal to that of the actual position of the device being spoofed. Using a spoofing test system will allow a user to better understand the receiver and harden the system against spoofing attacks. pdf - 673 KB
Tuesday, December 8, 2015
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White Papers: SmarTiming+ GPS/GNSS Discipining Technology Whitepaper Patented Smart SRO Rubidium SynClock+ with Industry'S First SmarTiming+ Technology Inside pdf - 857 KB
Friday, September 7, 2012
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White Papers: Synchronized Time Improves Healthcare As the healthcare industry embraces technology to improve patient care and reduce costs, integrating disparate systems is critical for maximizing performance. Something as simple as a common basis for time-keeping can make a difference in records accuracy, device and system interoperability, security, regulatory compliance, and overall efficiency of operations. As technology implementations are network centric, time-keeping in software and hardware can be easily synchronized to the official worldwide time standard. pdf - 664 KB
Wednesday, September 30, 2015
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