Product Documents & Files

Typesort descending Title Date
White Papers: Creating a GNSS Test Plan: A Start to Finish Guide

The low cost and high performance of GNSS receiver chipsets makes it easier than ever to include a GNSS receiver in products that never had them before. With the availability of multiple GNSS constellations that transmit signals on multiple frequencies, and various available technologies to improve the accuracy of GNSS, evaluating and selecting a receiver can be a significant undertaking.

How a GNSS receiver is integrated can have a major impact on product and system performance. To ensure success, a best practice is to perform testing using a GNSS simulator, which allows for repeatable testing of devices with GNSS receivers in simulated environments.

This white paper defines the key performance tests for the receiver, outlines test development considerations, and includes an Example Test Plan.

pdf - 5 MB
Tuesday, September 1, 2020
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White Papers: Why Accurate Time is Essential for Video Surveillance and Security Programs With IP-based video surveillance hardware, commercial and government security professionals can now significantly improve their security system’s efficiency, performance and functionality by leveraging modern networking technologies. However, as is the case with any network, time synchronization – where all clocks in cameras, access systems, recording equipment, and computers have the same time – is essential, not only to ensure proper operation of your surveillance systems, but also to ensure the credibility of legal evidence. pdf - 2 MB
Tuesday, October 15, 2019
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White Papers: Mitigating an NTP Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack Network time service is not something many businesses think about as a key component of their critical infrastructures. In fact, it is often overlooked entirely, and in error. As a result, the network architect or engineer often defaults to an easy alternative: using a server or network switch as the source of the network clock and synchronizing these sources to Internet time servers using Network Time Protocol (NTP). This white paper discusses the risks of, and alternative solutions to, "NTP Over the Internet." pdf - 722 KB
Wednesday, August 29, 2018
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White Papers: SmarTiming+ GPS/GNSS Disciplining Technology Whitepaper (Chinese) pdf - 635 KB
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White Papers: A Holistic Approach to Trusted, Resilient PNT Positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) services are indispensable, and providing trusted, resilient PNT solutions requires us to look beyond individual systems and methodologies to focus upon the user. An architecture that can meet this demand must include multiple systems with diverse technologies so that any single threat or source of disruption can be mitigated. This document discusses how signaling technologies such as GNSS, eLoran and STL are the complementary components of this architecture. pdf - 583 KB
Wednesday, May 9, 2018
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White Papers: An Engineer’s Guide to CRPA Testing

CRPAs (Controlled Reception Pattern Antennas) are becoming increasingly common, particularly in the Defense sector. CRPAs are an extremely effective anti-jam/spoof solution, because they adapt dynamically in response to jamming or spoofing signals. It is important to know the direction from which the interference is coming, so that you do not receive that RF power into your GPS receiver. This is done by forming nulls in the direction of the interference, or by using beam forming techniques to isolate and track only the true satellite signals, ignoring theothers.

This guide discusses the applications and use cases for CRPAs, how they work and the methods for testing them. It also explores the various types of testing solutions available in the marketplace today, and helps you choose the right solution for your specific application.

pdf - 5 MB
Friday, September 18, 2020
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White Papers: Tech Brief Resiliency in PNT: Cybersecurity This Orolia Tech Brief explores the basic steps for maintaining security using a network-connected time server and looks at different ways to achieve resiliency in PNT. As an example, we will start with our SecureSync® Time Server product line to demonstrate how to maintain security with this network-connected device. pdf - 351 KB
Friday, February 22, 2019
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White Papers: The Importance of Low Phase Noise in Military Mobile Applications Military communications and intelligence-collection functions, traditionally associated with fixed sites and large platforms, are being pushed to tactical vehicles and sophisticated Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAVs). This results in more C5ISR systems being installed on mobile platforms. Whether in the air, on land, or at sea, these vehicles will impart shocks and vibrations to their electronics, sometimes severely. In high vibration environments, the system designer must account for induced phase noise which can drastically affect overall performance. This white paper discusses the challenges of keeping low noise signals pure in any environment. pdf - 903 KB
Wednesday, August 22, 2018
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White Papers: The Advent of Tightly Synchronized Clocks in Distributed Systems

The last decade has brought a paradigm shift in computing systems from single processor devices — whose performance plateaued — to distributed computing systems. In distributed systems, nodes execute concurrently with limited information about what the other nodes are executing at the moment. A key component of distributed coordination is the enforcement of consistent views at all nodes for the ordering of significant events. To this end, events are "timestamped" with logical counters or — increasingly lately — with tightly-synchronized physical time.

About the Author:

Murat Demirbas is a Professor of Computer Science & Engineering at University at Buffalo, SUNY. Murat received his Ph.D. from The Ohio State University in 2004 and did a postdoc at the Theory of Distributed Systems Group at MIT in 2005. His research interests are in distributed and networked systems and cloud computing. Murat received an NSF CAREER award in 2008, UB Exceptional Scholars Young Investigator Award in 2010, UB School of Engineering and Applied Sciences Senior Researcher of the Year Award in 2016. He maintains a popular blog on distributed systems at http://muratbuffalo.blogspot.com.

pdf - 192 KB
Friday, May 11, 2018
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White Papers: Cost-effective Synchronization for Digital Broadcast In Europe, Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia, broadcasters are looking to the DVB-T2 standard to upgrade from analog transmission, their current DVB-T implementation, or as a supplemental network. Similarly, in South America, ISDB-T is being implemented. These and other standards rely more and more on single frequency networks (SFN) to efficiently utilize wireless frequency spectrum. SFNs require synchronization so for each instant of time, every transmission station is broadcasting the same digital data at the same exact frequency. pdf - 739 KB
Thursday, July 26, 2012
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White Papers: Practical Guide to GADSS Autonomous Distress Tracking Implementation

The Autonomous Distress Tracking (ADT) mandate is part of the Global Aeronautical Distress and Safety System (GADSS) initiative launched by ICAO after several accidents where downed aircraft could not be located at all, or only after long and expensive search efforts.

While most airlines have already complied with the normal tracking mandate due by the end of 2018, the ADT requirement for January 2023 is approaching fast. It is designed to improve the location of aircraft in the critical phase, when the aircraft is in distress, anywhere in the world.

pdf - 2 MB
Monday, December 3, 2018
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White Papers: Why Time Synchronization Is Critical for Improving Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) When 911 dispatch and other recording systems employ synchronized time solutions, the improved data records deliver measurable life-saving differences in their communities and provide the potential for reduced insurance rates. This white paper discusses key benefits to implementing a Legally Traceable Time® architecture. pdf - 952 KB
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
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White Papers: Resilient PNT Solutions for Telemetry During GNSS Outage Test Scenarios

GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) is key to effective situational awareness, providing critical Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) telemetry data for mobile military operations. Yet GPS/GNSS jamming and spoofing attacks are on the rise.

The disruption of GNSS for increasing periods of time through jamming/ spoofing must now be an essential test component in most test scenarios today. How can you still provide reliable Time-Space Position Information (TSPI) during periods of GNSS denial?

This white paper identifies technologies, best practices and strategies for GNSS jamming/spoofing detection and protection systems, and testing protocols to maintain a state of PNT readiness.

pdf - 2 MB
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
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White Papers: Making Time Sensitive Networks Resilient Against Threats White Paper Today's time sensitive networks rely on available and accurate positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) signals to provide leaders with the information required to make timely and effective decisions. The proliferation of GNSS-degrading and denying devices across state and non-state actors put this critical information capability in jeopardy. Learn how a combination of alternative PNT signals with traditional GNSS references makes PNT applications resilient against jamming and spoofing. pdf - 3 MB
Friday, May 11, 2018
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White Papers: Simplifying the Path Alignment of Microwave Communication Systems

Wherever microwave links exist, the path between antennas has always required accurate antenna alignment. This process requires highly trained tower crews to physically align the antennas as well as ground technicians and sophisticated, expensive, and complex test equipment to monitor the results. The process of optimizing the transmission path of microwave communication systems is about to undergo a significant development in process, simplification and cost benefit without compromising performance or accuracy. The process can now be accomplished with the use of the Pendulum (formerly XL Microwave) Path Align-R Microwave Antenna Path Alignment Test Sets. Tower installation crews can now perform the entire alignment process themselves, up the tower, at the antenna, without the need of additional ground technicians, equipment, or indeed, even the waveguides or radios installed.

By Fernando Torrelio, is President and Chief Engineer of Aurora Genesis Communications Inc., a microwave, cellular, PCS, & LMDS engineering, maintenance, installation, and testing company supporting the technical requirements of the wireless communications industry. 

pdf - 132 KB
Thursday, May 3, 2012
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White Papers: MiFID II Clock Sync Requirements Checklist

In January 2018, MiFID II RTS 25 compliance began, including five requirements for timing synchronization. Use this detailed checklist to make sure that you’re aware of the key considerations, your timing chain is ready and you're fully compliant.

pdf - 2 MB
Friday, January 19, 2018
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White Papers: SmarTiming+ GPS/GNSS Discipining Technology Whitepaper Patented Smart SRO Rubidium SynClock+ with Industry'S First SmarTiming+ Technology Inside pdf - 857 KB
Friday, September 7, 2012
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